Baldwin, C. R.*, Haimovitz, K.*, Shankar, P., Gallop, R. J., Yeager, D., Gross, J. J., & Duckworth, A. L. (2022). Self-control and SAT outcomes: Evidence from two national field studies. Manuscript submitted for publication. PLOS ONE. 10.1371/journal.pone.0274380

Self-control is often thought to be synonymous with willpower, defined as the direct modulation of impulses in order to do what is best in the long-run. However, research has also identified more strategic approaches to self-control that require less effort than willpower. To date, field research is lacking that compares the efficacy of willpower to strategic self-control for consequential and objectively measured real-world outcomes. In collaboration with the College Board, we surveyed two national samples of high school students about how they motivated themselves to study for the SAT college admission exam. In Study 1 (N = 5,563), compared to willpower, strategic self-control predicted more hours of SAT practice and higher SAT scores, even when controlling for prior PSAT scores. Additionally, the more self-control strategies students deployed, the higher their SAT scores. Consistent with dose-response curves in other domains, there were positive albeit diminishing marginal returns to additional strategies. Mediation analyses suggest that the benefits of self-control strategies to SAT scores was fully explained by increased practice time. These results were confirmed in Study 2, a preregistered replication with N = 14,259 high school students. Compared to willpower, strategic self-control may be especially beneficial in facilitating the pursuit of goals in high-stakes, real-world situations.


Porter, T., Baldwin, C. R., Murray, E., Warren, M. T., Forgeard, M., Bronk, K. C., Snow, N., & Jayawickreme, E. (2021). Clarifying the content of intellectual humility: A systematic review and integrative framework. Journal of Personality Assessment. 10.1080/00223891.2021.1975725

During the last decade, intellectual humility has gone from a topic of philosophical inquiry to one of serious scientific investigation. It has been variously described as a remedy for political polarization, a tool for advancing scientific credibility, and a disposition that promotes learning. However, less attention has been paid to how intellectual humility has been defined and measured or how well psychologists’ definitions and measures align with one another or with philosophers’ accounts. Through a systematic review of empirical intellectual humility research, we identified 18 separate definitions and 20 measures including 16 unique questionnaires. We then synthesized this research to advance a new framework of intellectual humility. Implications of this framework for measurement and future research on intellectual humility are discussed.


Hardy, S. A., Baldwin, C. R., Herd, T., & Kim-Spoon, J. M. (2020). Longitudinal relations between religiousness and self-regulation across adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 56(1), 180-197. 10.1037/dev0000841

Prior research has demonstrated that religiousness is associated with and potentially facilitative of self-regulation, though most of the research has been cross-sectional. The present longitudinal study examined dynamic relations between religiousness development and self-regulation formation from early adolescence into young adulthood. The sample included 500 U.S. adolescents and their parents. The data were restructured by adolescent age and analyzed from ages 11-22. The analyses involved latent curve models with structured residuals (LCM-SR). First, univariate latent growth curve models were estimated for religiousness, as well as adolescent-reports and parent-reports of adolescent behavioral self-regulation, cognitive self-regulation, and emotional self-regulation. Religiousness decreased over time while self-regulation increased (except for adolescent-report behavioral self-regulation, which followed a u-shape). Bivariate latent growth curve models pairing religiousness with each self-regulation variable found significant positive correlations between change in religiousness and change in adolescent-report cognitive and emotional self-regulation and parent-report emotional self-regulation. After adding in cross-lagged paths, relations between these slopes went away, but positive bidirectional cross-lagged associations in both directions were found between religiousness and adolescent-report cognitive self-regulation and parent-report emotional self-regulation. These results provide evidence for dynamic relations between religiousness and self-regulation across adolescence and into young adulthood. Further, the findings point to possible specificity based on the self-regulation dimension and whether data are adolescent-report or parent-report.


Hardy, S. A., Dollahite, D., & Baldwin, C. R. (2019). Parenting, religion, and moral development. In D. Laible, G. Carlo, & L. Padilla-Walker (Eds.), Handbook for Parenting and Moral Development, 179-196. Oxford Press. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190638696.013.18

The purpose of this chapter is to review research on the role of religion in moral development within the family. We first present a model of the processes involved. Parent or family religiosity is the most distal predictor and affects moral development through its influence on parenting as well as child or adolescent religiosity. Additionally, parenting affects moral development directly, but also through its influence on child or adolescent religiosity. In other words, parent or family religiosity dynamically interconnects with parenting styles and practices, and with family relationships, and these in turn influence moral development directly as well as through child or adolescent religiosity. We also discuss how these processes might vary across faith traditions and cultures, and point to directions for future research.

Under Review

Berg, M. K., Baldwin, C. R., Yuan, J., Sowden, W. J., Kitayama, S., & Kross, E. (under review). Culture shapes moral reasoning about close others. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Orvell, A.*, Baldwin, C. R.*, Costello, C., Takahashi, S., Moser, J., Ozlem, A., & Kross E. (revise and resubmit). Emotion regulation in daily life: A case study on coping with COVID-19 anxiety. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Southwick, D. A., Liu, V., Baldwin, C. R., Quirk, A. L., Ungar, L. H., Tsay, C. J., & Duckworth, A. L. (revise and resubmit). The trouble with talent: Semantic ambiguity in the workplace. Manuscript submitted for publication.

In Prep

Liou, G., Bailey, D., Baldwin, C. R., Zhang, F., Duckworth, A. L., & Tay, L. (in prep). Why life outcomes are hard to predict.

Baldwin, C. R., Berg, M. K. & Kross, E. (in prep). How victimization by close others impacts moral reasoning.

Southwick, D. A., Spear, I., Baldwin, C. R., & Duckworth, A. L. (in prep). The fundamental attribution error in professional quarterbacks’ success.